By Benjamin Nathans
A stunning variety of Jews lived, actually and figuratively, "beyond the light" of Jewish cost in tsarist Russia in the course of the half-century sooner than the Revolution of 1917. because of the provision of long-closed Russian files, besides a variety of different resources, Benjamin Nathans reinterprets the historical past of the Russian-Jewish encounter.In the wake of Russia's "Great Reforms," Nathans writes, a coverage of selective integration encouraged social and geographic mobility one of the empire's Jews. The response that culminated, towards the flip of the century, in ethnic regulations on admission to universities, the professions, and different associations of civil society mirrored huge anxieties that Russians have been being positioned at an obstacle of their personal empire. Nathans's conclusions concerning the results of selective integration and the Russian-Jewish come upon in this formative interval should be of serious curiosity to all scholars of contemporary Jewish and smooth Russian heritage.
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Extra info for Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia
Dokumenty po istorii i kul´ture evreev v arkhivakh Moskvy (Moscow, 1997); V. Khiterer, Dokumenty sobrannye evreiskoi istoriko-arkheograﬁcheskoi komissiei vseukrainskoi akademii nauk (Kiev and Jerusalem, 1999); and idem, Evreiskie dokumenty v arkhivakh Kieva, XVI–XX vv. (forthcoming). ’”35 With time, the combined efforts of an international community of scholars will, I hope, produce a fuller mosaic. ”36 All dates prior to February 1918 are given according to the old ( Julian) calendar in use in late imperial Russia, which was behind the Western (Gregorian) calendar by twelve days in the nineteenth century and thirteen days in the twentieth.
For a preliminary look at some of the major collections, see the following guides: G. M. : Putevoditel´, ed. Benjamin Nathans (Moscow, 1994); D. A. , Dokumental´nye materialy po istorii evreev v arkhivakh SNG i stran Baltii (St. Petersburg, 1994); M. S. , Dokumenty po istorii i kul´ture evreev v arkhivakh Moskvy (Moscow, 1997); V. Khiterer, Dokumenty sobrannye evreiskoi istoriko-arkheograﬁcheskoi komissiei vseukrainskoi akademii nauk (Kiev and Jerusalem, 1999); and idem, Evreiskie dokumenty v arkhivakh Kieva, XVI–XX vv.
Many kahals continued de facto to function well after 1844, though in more clandestine fashion. 31 Kise- 28. , p. 6) showed full awareness of the ﬁction whereby the Jews, despite their formal status as members of the urban estates, continued de facto to pay their taxes through the kahal, though for reasons that are unclear he claimed that Jews were not subject to the principle of collective responsibility through the kahal.