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By Stephen Marshak, Gautum Mitra

Whole insurance of all of the easy subject matters of structural geology.

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Larval development of recent species of molluscs (including gastropods and bivalves) is well known (Jablonski and Lutz, 1980), but much uncertainty exists about the types of larvae of Paleozoic species, especially those belonging to extinct clades. Studies of modern larvae in eastern North Atlantic waters demonstrate that bivalve larvae can be transported long distances across the ocean, especially if there are islands or subsurface elevations such as guyots that can be used as standing points (Thiede, 1974).

L. Benedetto et al. TABLE 4. CARADOCIAN GENERA OF THE PRECORDILLERA AND RECORDS IN OTHER SELECTED AREAS (BRACHIOPODS AND BIVALVES) Taxa PreCentral Laurentia cordillera Andean Basin Brachiopods Aegiromena Anchoramena† Anoptambonites Bicuspina Camerella Campylorthis Dinorthis Drabovia Drabovinella Hesperorthis Howellites Oanduporella Oepikoides† Ptychoglyptus S. (Sowerbyella) Tissintia Bivalves Cadomia Cardiolaria Concavodonta Concavoleda† Cuyopsis† Cycloconchid new gen† Emiliania† Hemiconcavodonta† Modiolopsis Protomya?

Another possibility suggested by these authors is that both Laurentian and Precordilleran species differentiated earlier in the Ordovician from a common ancestor that inhabited the Precordillera terrane when it was closer to Laurentia. In light of the new paleogeographic hypothesis proposed recently by the senior author, in which eastern Laurentia is placed at or near the northwest corner of South America (Fig. 6), a migration route from Laurentia to Gondwana or vice versa could have been established along their continental margins during the early Caradoc (Benedetto, 1998c).

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