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By Carlos Sousa Oliveira, Antoni Roca, Xavier Goula

* Multidisciplinary process of probability overview and administration, that may supply extra effective earthquake mitigation. * Transfer of Geo-scientific and engineering wisdom to Civil safety and assurance brokers * ways and customary practices at once regarding the guidance of earthquake emergency plans * Illustrated examples of tangible functions, together with sites * Case-studies and knowledge on correct overseas initiatives

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These methods present the great advantage of introducing a probability value associated to the parameters that characterize the ground motion at a site. Nevertheless, the probabilistic methods also have some important limitations. For example in the cases when it is necessary to extrapolate the results to much larger return periods than the time interval covered by the available data, which means to extrapolate the validity of the probability distributions to larger time periods and higher magnitudes, where the existing information usually does not exist.

9. Political considerations Our scientific and technical knowledge has improved considerably in the last decade. ). These scientific achievements have led to an increase in e efforts towards the assessment of hazard and vulnerability but, only very recently, has political awareness gained some visibility, in particular in the wealthier earthquake prone countries. It is clear that much is still needed to understand seismic phenomena and the technical needs of varied types of constructions and facilities.

Depending on the scale of work, we may consider only the regional differences derived from seismic sources and path, as the case of a gross scale, or consider site effects if working at a detail scale. Microzoning may include also other effects beyond the traditional seismic action parameters, such as landslide, liquefaction, etc. ) spread in a region, subjected to different levels of ground motion during a given event. 14 C. S. Oliveira, A. Roca and X. Goula Essential (critical) facilities – Installations or equipment whose performance during an earthquake is decisive under various different functions: to serve in the emergency operation, to avoid leakage of dangerous products, or due to have a large concentration of population.

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