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By Manuel Sintubin, Iain S. Stewart, Tina M. Niemi, Erhan Altunel

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48 times greater than the tectonic-boundary distance, implying a probability of random distribution that is very small but ~75 times greater than that for tectonic boundaries. Even along Mediterranean and Near Eastern shores, civilizations apparently located their originating sites near active tectonic boundaries. Does the relation result in finer-scale vignettes? Perhaps a tectonic influence suggests itself in the Hellenic realm (Fig. 2). Mycenaean and later Greek civilization nucleated in a zone of distributed deformation along the on-land prolongation of the North Anatolian fault and its offsets along the Gulf of Corinth and other extensional structures.

5695–5719. , 2007, Hostile Shores—Catastrophic Events in Prehistoric New Zealand and Their Impact on Maori Coastal Communities: Auckland, Auckland University Press, 298 p. , 2009, Foreshock-Aftershock: The Archaeology of Chews Lane, Wellington: Auckland, Clough and Associates Report 6, 106 p. , 2008, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God: Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 309 p. , Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology: London, Duckworth, p. 109–134. , 1992, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times: Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 512 p.

In the case of caves and rock shelters, not all that were available for use contain evidence of human activity. Of those that do, some clearly show evidence of more activity than others. Some regions with available caves and rock shelters clearly show greater concentrations of evidence than others. Open-air sites can be targeted to provide a control and are often found once they are sought out. A similar approach can be employed in relation to tectonic factors. Moreover, it is not necessarily the case that archaeological materials from very early periods will be invisible in areas that are not tectonically active because these areas are likely to have smoothed surfaces that are subject neither to accumulation of obscuring sediment nor to erosion, and artifacts once deposited are likely to remain in place for many tens or hundreds of millennia.

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