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Extra info for Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection and Automation: Conference Proceedings of International Scientific & Technical Conference (Moscow, September 7–10, 2009)
2. Equivalent Circuits Figure 2(a) shows the equivalent circuit of an iron-core current transformer. Magnetizing current Ie introduces amplitude error and phase error. Since the CT iron-core has a non-linear characteristic it may saturate at 38 Moscow, 7–10 September 2009 fault currents, or when DC is present in the primary current. e. CT ratio error increases). This may negatively impact relay performance, resulting in delayed operation, non-operation, or unwanted operation. Ip Ls Rs Is Ie Lm RB Vs (a) Current Transformer Low Impedance Burden M Ip Ls Rs Vs (b) Rogowski Coil RB High Impedance Burden Fig.
Figure 11 shows a busbar with four feeders. Rogowski Coils can be connected to one relay using shielded twisted pair cable and a summing block as shown in Figure 11a. In the solution shown in Figure 11b, Rogowski Coils can be connected to different channels of a relay or connected to multiple relays interfaced by communication. This allows monitoring of each branch independently and therefore dynamic isolator replica for more complex busbar systems are designed using the same criteria as for conventional current transformers.
Since the secondary tubes cannot be opened, the secondary Rogowski Coils were designed in split-core styles. The first relay systems were put into service in 2004 and a number of systems have been installed since then. These protection systems have proven to offer a high level of both scheme dependability and security. In the EAF applications, security of the scheme is as important as dependability, since each EAF transformer experiences over 70 energizations a day. In addition, at the beginning of the heating cycle, the currents are rapidly changing ON-OFF from zero to over 90 kA, are heavily unbalanced and distorted (harmonics), and act as Out-of-Zone events that are much more severe than a typical utility substation transformer experiences with a downstream fault.