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Download Academic Freedom at American Universities. Constitutional by Philip Lee PDF

By Philip Lee

This e-book information the felony and ancient improvement of institutional and professorial educational freedoms to higher comprehend the connection among those suggestions. whereas a few judges and students have all for the divergence of those protections, this booklet articulates an aligned concept that brings either the professorial and institutional theories jointly. It argues that whereas constitutionally dependent educational freedom does its task in holding either private and non-private universities from over the top nation interference, or at least it asks the appropriate questions, it truly is insufficient since it fails to guard many person professors within the related approach. This answer involves utilizing agreement legislation to fill within the gaps that constitutional legislation leaves open in regard to conserving person professors.

Contract legislation is a good replacement to constitutional legislations for 3 purposes. First, in contrast to constitutional legislations, it covers professors at either private and non-private universities....

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Additional info for Academic Freedom at American Universities. Constitutional Rights, Professional Norms, and Contractual Duties

Example text

Different criteria for success can apply at each stage of settlement, involving new challenges and opportunities. Integration is not only a long-term but also a multi-generational process, sometimes taking two if not three generations. What constitutes success for one generation would be an inappropriate standard for another. Longitudinal surveys and a life-cycle approach to integration can follow immigrants and their descendents, disaggregated by age and generation, as they move from one stage in their life to another.

This evaluation framework can be applied to immigrant integration policies. For example, policymakers in an increasingly diverse society want to improve political participation and make politics more representative. They can pursue this overall vision in many policy domains. In terms of their integration policy, they can aim to improve opportunities for migrant participation in politics and/or facilitate their access to nationality. Their ex ante evaluation can assess various target groups (EU citizens, third-country nationals, naturalised citizens, ethnic minorities born in the country, et cetera).

It can also follow the careers of migrant politicians and the voting patterns of migrants before and after naturalisation. Impact indicators can measure whether greater political participation among migrants has led to greater overall political participation rates, and whether greater demographic representation among politicians has improved substantive representation in decision-making. 2. Key Features for Evaluation in Integration Policy Have all of these indicator types been recognised in the current integration literature?

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