By Ranko Matasović
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Extra info for A Short Grammar of Kabardian
Neg. work-ger. -eat-NOM sin-af. -know The two verbal negations differ in scope: the prefixed -mə- is the narrow scope negation, with thescope just over the verbal nucleus, while the suffixed negation -q'əm negates the whole sentence (including the embedded participles, infinitives, and/or gerunds). The other NW Caucasian languages also have prefixal negation with the infinite verbal forms, and suffixal negation with the finite forms. PERSON Kabardian distinguishes three persons singular and plural.
The causative prefix ġa- / ġā- turns intransitive verbs into transitive verbs: ś'āla-r boy-NOM. -af. -af. g. zaġawan "make someone hit himself". 45 Kumaxov 1971: 206. g.. e. a-t-yə... -af. "(His) friend had five geese... and he made his mother cook them, and he brought them to the lord" Cf. also źan "burn" (intransitive): ġa-źan "burn" (transitive): ġa-ġa-źan "make someone burn". Case assignment with causative verbs is typologically very unusual46. The case of the arguments in a causative construction is not determined by that verb, which is always transitive, but by the verb from which the causative verb is derived.
Abkhaz has another applicative markers, la-, which has instrumental function (Hewitt 2004: 134). -eat "Eat meat with cheese" Hasan syə nārtəxw qapə-r yazəm yay-xa-m d-yə-haž-ā-ś H. 1sg. -af. "Hasan ground my bag of corn together with his own" Note that the added (applied) argument in the examples above is in the Ergative (in its oblique function). This shows that the added argument is not the object/undergoer, but oblique. -af. , in Haka-Lai, a Tibeto-Burman language (Peterson 200). However, the difference lies in the fact that the adding of the conjunctivity prefix does not affect the transitivity of a verb, as is clear from case marking and the shape of the person markers.