By Cyrus Ernesto Zirakzadeh
Combining insights from historic research with the collective-action college of political sociology, Cyrus Zirakzadeh argues that there has been a calculative, instrumental measurement to the behaviour of the Basque progressive team, ETA, that students too usually forget. This paintings elaborates at the social and fiscal issues of individuals of ETA and the Basque Nationalist get together, recounts debates inside ETA over the political effectiveness of armed fight, and discusses the impression of neighborhood social pursuits and nationalist and non-nationalist ideologies on etarras' (ETA individuals) considering.
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Extra info for A Rebellious People: Basques, Protests, And Politics (The Basque Series)
3 He fails to comment at any length on nonshrill, nonextreme, and nonlethal political activity by Basque residents. " 5 For all three scholars, violence seems to be the sine qua non of politics in the Basque region. Viewing violence as a central element of Basque politics, journalists and scholars usually rely on an implicit social theory to explain the phenomenon. The theory is a variant on a paradigm in the social sciences about the inevitable breakdown of traditional and preindustrial societies, and the emotional disturbances that tend to surface in its wake.
Because ETA can be used in at least two waysas a shorthand for a very loose coalition of revolutionary groups desiring political independence and social revolution for the Basque region, and as shorthand for only those groups that engaged in armed struggle31establishment of a standardized definition seems wise. Therefore, as used in this study, ETA and the ETA movement will refer to all Basque political groups whose existence was inspired largely by some or all of the ideals articulated during the early 1960s by a small clandestine Basque nationalist study group known as ETA.
Such cooperatives have existed in the Basque mountains since early in the century. 28 The most famous of the newest generation of the cooperatives originated during the late 1950s in the town of Mondragón. Five ambitious mechanics pooled their savings and established a moderately sized manufacturing firm. Local workers who wished to join the firm first had to buy a share of stock, agree not to sell the stock while employed in the cooperative, agree to contribute shares of their salaries to the firm for future capital investment, and agree not to join or organize a union.