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Download A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the by Owen Chadwick PDF

By Owen Chadwick

May a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the reasons and results of the top of the historical Papal country, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here less than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never in simple terms from Italy, yet from liberal pursuits in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish matters. If a united Italy used to be to be accomplished, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to aim to steer it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly points of Catholic religion. even as they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. hence, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority may be way more centralized in Rome.

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During the age of Gregory XVI the lower French clergy became conscious of a need for the authority of Rome. The State, seeing the need for more elementary schools, was aware of the service that religious orders might render, as also in nursing. It did not discourage the religious and occasionally encouraged them. A so-called Guizot law (1833) recognized that members of religious orders could be teachers in schools and provided that religion be taught in primary schools. There was an astonishing growth in the number of French Jesuits—seventy-four houses in 1840.

In Belgium and in Poland his doctrines were Catholic comfort and people said that it was only necessary to 26 Gregory XVI accept the pope's decrees when he taught religious doctrine and not necessary when he talked of political constitutions. Young French priests pointed out that Lamennais was not condemned. In several dioceses of France the debate still raged—if Lamennais was silent his disciples were not. And his opponents were discontented with Rome. Lamennais had retracted nothing. This was, in the old Janseiiist phrase, 'a respectful silence'.

He regarded Rhineland Catholicism as obscurantist and to be separated, whenever possible, from its links with Rome. During the Napoleonic wars the archbishopric of Cologne was abolished because the French annexed much of its territory when they secularized the prince-bishopric. By agreement with Prussia the pope recreated the archbishopric in 1821. At once the archbishop became a potential leader of resistance to the Prussian government in the Rhineland. In 1835 the Prussian government, which could veto the choice of archbishop, failed to prevent the election of Count Droste zu Vischering, because they knew that he was very conservative and against radicals in politics.

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