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Download A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50) by William D. Davies PDF

By William D. Davies

Madurese is an enormous neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, usually at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there's no current complete descriptive grammar of the language, with present reports being both sketches of the total grammar, or particular descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific themes inside of those elements of the grammar. there isn't any competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer solely) with reference to syntax.

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1988/1989) represent 13 different vowels. No one else reports this many. The system has also generated interest in the theoretical literature in the work of Cohn (1993a,b), Trigo (1987, 1991), and Anderson (1991). 17 30 Chapter 2 Phonology items. Stevens (1968) estimates that 95% of all Madurese words make use of these alternating vowels. Each pair consists of a high vowel and a non-high vowel that match in backness and whose distribution is determined by the phonological environment in which it occurs.

However, this same type of laxing in closed syllables has been reported some closely-related languages (Indonesian (Lapoliwa 1981), Karo Batak (Woollams 1996)). Similar to the tense/lax alternation is a reported raising and/or tensing process affecting non-high front and back vowels in open syllables. g. Oka et al. 1988/89, and at others as a slightly raised ɛ [ɛ], or ɔ, [ɔ] (Stevens 1968). Potential examples include: (35) [sɛ] ~ [sɛ] ~ [se] ‘relative particle’ [rɛja] ~ [rɛja] ~ [reja] ‘that’ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pole] ‘again’ [ratɔ] ~ [ratɔ] ~ [rato] ‘king’ Again, there is a great deal of speaker variation.

Mpɔl] [t. 2. Vowels Many vowel correspondences between Madurese and Indonesian are quite regular because the quality of the Madurese vowel is conditioned by a rule of vowel raising in which high vowels occur after aspirated and voiced stops and mid and low vowels elsewhere. (The process and the limited exceptions are discussed more fully in section 4). Because the surface form is more revealing in the case of vowels, phonetic representations of Madurese and Indonesian are compared here. These correspondences include instances in which Madurese has a mid vowel because of the preceding conditioning environment.

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