Geology

Download A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.) PDF

By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)

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The valves are thus dissimilar but each is symmetrical about its left and right halves. The phylum is divided into two classes, the Inarticulata and the Articulata. In the latter the shells are connected by teeth and sockets along a hinge line. The shells of the Inarticulata are held together only by muscles. Brachiopods are marine benthonic animals attached to the substrate by a pedicle, which commonly protrudes through an opening in the larger valve (the pedicle valve). The other valve is called the brachial valve.

Different bases dominate in different environments: calcium is commonest in temperate soils, sodium in saline and alkaline soils of the arid environments. basic rocks. Igneous rocks with a silica content of 45-55% (by weight). They consist largely of relatively silica-poor minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, and calcic plagioclase feldspar. Typical basic rocks are basalt, dolerite, and gabbro. See acid rocks, intermediate rocks, ultrabasic rocks. basin. 1. A large sediment-filled depression often present in cratonic areas; it may be circular or elliptical.

The first of such devices to achieve useful underwater work were Beebe's bathysphere and Barton's benthoscope. By about 1953, improved bathyscaphes were reaching depths in excess of 3000 m during experimental trials. During 1960, the bathyscaphe Trieste landed on the floor of the Mariana Trench (5933 fathoms). They can be equipped with grab-sampling, coring, and other equipment. bauxite. An aluminium ore formed by the weathering of aluminium-rich, relatively iron- and silicon-poor rocks (mainly syenites) under tropical conditions.

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