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Extra resources for A Deep-Sea Telescope for High-Energy Neutrinos - ANTARES Collaboration

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5 GeV2 and x down to 2 × 10−2 at Q2 = 5000 GeV2 [53]. These measurements can be translated into a neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section at Eν ≃ 50 TeV and can also be used as a guide to extrapolate the parton densities beyond the measured ranges in x and Q2 to those required for higher neutrino energies. 2 shows the behaviour of the average νN crosssection for different sets of parton distribution functions. At very high energy, the cross-section calculated with the new parton distribution functions (CTEQ3- 27 DIS [54]) is more than a factor of 2 larger than previous estimates.

In December 1997, measurements were performed with a 33 m long rigid structure holding a collimated and continuous LED source located at a variable distance from an optical module. For each selected distance D between the source and the detector, the LED luminosity ΦLED was adjusted so as to yield a constant 44 current IPMT on the photomultiplier tube. The set-up was calibrated with a similar experiment done in air. The emitted and detected intensities in water being related by IPMT ∝ ΦLED /D2 × exp(−D/λatt.

It is assumed that they were produced shortly after the Big Bang and would have cooled down to very low velocities (β ≤ 10−3 ). They may be at the origin of baryon number violating processes [43] and have been searched for in proton decay experiments. The best limits to date are provided by the MACRO [44] and BAKSAN [45] experiments. In the region 10−4 ≤ β ≤ 10−3 , they have achieved sensitivity below the Parker bound [46]. Baikal has obtained limits which could be comparable with a limited number of photomultipliers (36 and 192) [47].

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