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By P. R. Sreemahadevan Pillai

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After stirring pour some of the solution into the absorption cell of the photometer, and measure the turbidity at 30 second intervals for four minutes. 6. Usually maximum turbidity occurs within two minutes and the reading remains constant thereafter for 3 to 10 minutes. So, take reading with maximum turbidity occurring in within four minutes. 7. Prepare a calibration curve. The standards are prepared at 5 mg/L increments in the 0–40 mg/L sulphate range and their turbidity or absorbance read. 8.

6. 7. Which is the major form of alkalinity? How is it formed? What is excess alkalinity? How do you express it? 02 N H2SO4 for the titration? The water where algae are flourishing is alkaline. Why? Will there be diurnal variation in pH? Why does the pH change on aerating the water? For efficient coagulation the water must be alkaline. Why? Why do we use CO2 free distilled water for analysis? Determination of Alkalinity 25 26 A Comprehensive Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science and Engineering Experiment No.

___________________ Date ___________________ DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE Aim To determine the amount of chloride (in the form of Cl–) present in the given water sample by Mohr’s method. Principle If water containing chlorides is titrated with silver nitrate solution, chlorides are precipitated as white silver chloride. Potassium chromate is used as indicator, which supplies chromate ions. As the concentration of chloride ions approaches extinction, silver ion concentration increases to a level at which reddish brown precipitate of silver chromate is formed indicating the end point.

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